MAJOR FIGURES AND MOVEMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

A (MORE-OR-LESS) CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE

 

I. The rise and early development of philosophy (c. 2000 BC-500 AD)

 

A. Pre-philosophical ethical thought in ancient Egypt

    • Autobiographies: The Autobiography of Harkhuf (2300 BC?).
    • Instructions: The Instruction of Ptahhotep (2150 BC?); The Instruction Addressed to King Merikare (2100 BC?); The Instruction of Any (1400 BC?); The Instruction of Amenemope (1100 BC?).
    • Royal Installation Speeches: Thutmose III (r. 1479-1425 BC), The Installation of the Vizier Rekhmire (1450 BC?).
    • Tomb Inscriptions: The Song from the Tomb of King Intef (1400 BC?).
    • Didactic Literature: The Dispute between a Man and His Ba [soul] (1800 BC?).
    • Funeral Rites: The Book of the Dead (600 BC?).
    • Popular Wisdom Literature of the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BC): The Instruction of Ankhsehshong (200 BC?).

B. Ancient Greece and Rome

    • The Pre-Socratic Period (7th-5th centuries BC)
      • The Milesian Nature-Philosophers: Thales (640-550 BC); Anaximander (610-540 BC); and Anaximenes (fl. 540 BC)
      • Pythagoras (580-500 BC)
      • Heraclitus (530-470 BC)
      • The Eleatic School: Parmenides (520-440 BC); Melissus (fl. 450 BC); and Zeno (490-430 BC)
      • The Pluralists: Empedocles (fl. 440 BC) and Anaxagoras (fl. 440 BC)
      • The Atomists: Leucippus (490-430 BC) and Democritus (460-360 BC)
    • The Socratic Period (5th-4th centuries BC)
      • The Sophists: Protagoras (480-410 BC); Gorgias (483-375? BC); Prodicus (c. 460-c. 399 BC); Antiphon (5th century BC); Thrasymachus (fl. 420 BC); etc.
      • Socrates (470-399 BC)
      • Plato (427-347 BC)
      • Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    • The Hellenistic-Roman Period (4th century BC-4th century AD)
      • Epicureanism: Epicurus (342-270 BC) and Lucretius (98-55 BC)
      • Stoicism: Epictetus (60-117 AD) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD)
      • Skepticism: Pyrrho (361-270 BC) and Sextus Empiricus (fl. c. 200 AD)
      • Neoplatonism: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria (30 BC - 50 AD); Plotinus (204-270 AD); Porphyry (232-304 AD); Proclus (410-485 AD)

 

C. Ancient India

    • The religious foundations of Indian philosophy (darshana):
      • the Vedas & the Upanishads (c. 1500-500 BC)
    • Early post-Vedic developments in Indian philosophy:
      • The Bhagavad Gita (c. 200 BC) [part of the epic, the Mahabharata (composed between 800 BC and 200 AD)]
      • The Dharma Shastras (composed c. 800 BC-200 AD)
    • The formation of the major schools of classical Indian philosophy:
      • The unorthodox (nastika) systems:
        • Materialism: Carvaka [name of founder?] (also known as Lokayata and Svabhavavada). The Sutra of Brihaspati (600 BC) [not extant]
        • Jainism: founded by Mahavira (secular name, Vardhamana) (599-527 BC); the Tattvarthadhigama Sutra by Sri Umasvati Acarya (3rd-4th centuries AD)
        • Buddhism: founded by Siddhartha Gautama (the "Buddha") (560-483 BC)
          • Theravada schools of philosophy:
            • Vaibhashika (1st-2nd centuries AD?)
            • Sautrantika: Kumaralabdha (2nd century AD); Vasubandhu (5th century AD); Yasomitra (6th century AD?); Dharmottara (9th century AD)
          • Mahayana schools of philosophy:
            • Ashvaghosa (1st century AD)
            • Madhyamaka (also known as Shunyavada, the Way of Emptiness or Voidness): Nagarjuna (2nd century AD); Aryadeva (2nd-3rd centuries AD); Kumarajiva (4th century AD); Buddhapalita (6th century AD); Candrakirti (6th century AD)
            • Yogacara (also known as Vijnanavada, the Way of Consciousness): Maitreyanatha (3rd-4th centuries AD?); Asanga (5th century AD); Vasubandhu (5th century AD) [converted from Sautrantika to Yogacara]
      • The six orthodox (astika, Hindu) systems:
        • Self/world (purusha-prakriti) dualism:
          • The Samkhya school: Kapila (c. 7th century BC) and the Samkhya-pravacana Sutra (date uncertain); the Samkhya-karika [classical treatise] by Isvarakrishna (3rd century AD)
          • The Yoga school: Patanjali's Yoga Sutra (2nd century BC); classical commentary (bhashya) by Vyasa (4th century AD)
        • Atomistic (pluralistic) realism:
          • The Nyaya school: Gautama (c. 6th century BC?) and the Nyaya Sutra (3rd century BC?); classical commentary by Vatsyayana (date uncertain)
          • The Vaisheshika school: Kanada and the Vaisheshika Sutra (3rd century BC); classical commentaries by Shamkara Misra and Candrakanta (dates uncertain)
        • Vedic conservatism:
          • The Purva-Mimamsa (or "Exegetical") school: Jaimini and the Mimamsa Sutra (4th century BC); classical commentary by Sabara (1st century BC)
          • The Uttara-Mimamsa (or "Vedanta") school: Badarayana and the Vedanta (or "Brahma") Sutra (1st century BC); classical commentary by Gaudapada (6th century AD)

D. Ancient China

    • Confucianism: Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius) (551-479 BC); Mencius (371-289 BC?); Hsun Tzu (fl. 298-238 BC); Tung Chung-shu (c. 179-c. 104 BC); Yang Hsiung (53 BC-18 AD)
    • Taoism: Lao Tzu (6th century BC); Chuang Tzu (399-295 BC?); Hui-nan Tzu (d. 122 BC); the Lieh Tzu (with the "Yang Chu Chapter") (1st-2nd centuries AD?); Wang Pi (226-249 AD); Kuo Hsiang (d. 312 AD)
    • Moism: Mo Tzu (fl. 479-438 BC)
    • The Logicians (School of Names): Hui Shih (385-305 BC); Kung-sun Lung (b. 380 BC?)
    • The Yin Yang School: Tsou Yen (305-240 BC)
    • Legalism: Han Fei Tzu (d. 233 BC)

II. Developments in philosophy from c. 500 to c. 1500 AD

 

A. Europe and the Middle East

    • Christian philosophy: Augustine of Hippo (354-430); Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109); Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274); John Duns Scotus (1265-1308); William of Ockham (1290-1349); etc.
    • Islamic philosophy: Al-Kindi (813?-873); Al-Farabi (10th century); Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037); Avenpace (11th-12th centuries); Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198); Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
    • Jewish philosophy: Saadia ben Joseph al-Fayyumi (892-942); Bahya ben Joseph Ibn Paqudah (11th century); Avicebron (Solomon Ibn Gabirol) (1020-1070); Judah Halevi (c. 1085 - c. 1143); Moses Maimonides (1135-1204); Levi ben Gershon (Gersonides) (1288-1344)

B. India

    • Hindu philosophy:
      • Coordination and synthesis of the six systems: Vacaspati-misra (9th century) [commentaries on the Samkhya, Yoga, Purva-Mimamsa, Vedanta, and Nyaya systems]; Udayana (10th century) [synthesis of the Nyaya and Vaisheshika systems]; Shivaditya (11th century?) [synthesis of the six systems]
      • Growing predominance of the Vedanta system: Shamkara (788-820?); Ramanuja (1017?-1137); Madhva (1197-1276)
    • Jaina philosophy: Hemacandra (1088-1172); commentary on Hemacandra by Mallishena (13th century)
    • Carvaka tradition dead; Buddhism gone from India by 1000 AD

C. The Far East

    • Southeast Asia: Theravada Buddhist philosophy
    • Tibet: Mahayana Buddhist philosophy (including Tantrism)
    • China
      • Neo-Confucianism: Han Yu (768-824); Chou Tun-i (1017-1073); Shao Yung (1011-1077); Chang Tsai (Chang Heng-ch'u) (1020-1077); Ch'eng Hao (1032-1085); Ch'eng I (1033-1200); Chu Hsi (11301200); Lu Chiu-yuan (1139-1193); Wang Yang-ming (1473-1529)
      • Chinese (Mahayana) Buddhist philosophy:
        • The Three Treatise (San-lun) School [Madhyamika philosophy blended with Neo-Taoism]: Kumarajiva (344-413); Seng-chao (384-414); Chi-Tsang (549-623)
        • The Consciousness-Only (Mei-shih) School [Yogacara philosophy]: Hsuan-Tsang (596-664) (and notes on his major work by his pupil, K'uei-chi [632-682])
        • The T'ien-T'ai (Heavenly Terrace, or Lotus) School: Kumarajiva (344-413) [again]; Hui-Wen (550-577); Hui-Ssu (514-577); Chih-I (538-597)
        • The Hua-Yen (Flower Garland) School: Fa-Tsang (643-712)
        • The Ch'an (Meditation) School [called "Zen" in Japan]: Bodhidharma (460-534); Hung-jen (601-674); Shen-hsiu (605-706) [Northern School]; Hui-neng (638-713) [Southern School]
    • Japan
      • Neo-Confucianism: Muso Soseki (1275-1351)
      • Mahayana Buddhist philosophy:
        • The Hosso School ("Mei-shih" in China): Dosho (7th century)
        • The Tendai School ("Ti'en T'ai" in China): Saicho (8th century)
        • The Shingon ("True Word") School: Kukai (774-835)
        • The Zen School ("Ch'an" in China): Esai (13th century) [Rinzai sect]; Dogen (13th century) [Soto sect]

III. Developments in philosophy from c. 1500 to c. 1850 AD

 

A. Europe

    • Renaissance philosophy: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494); Pietro Pompanazzi (1462-1525); Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592); Francis Bacon (1561-1626); etc.
    • Continental Rationalism: Rene Descartes (1596-1650); Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677); and Gottfried von Leibniz (1646-1716)
    • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
    • British Empiricism: John Locke (1632-1704); George Berkeley (1685-1753); and David Hume (1711-1776)
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
    • German Idealism: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804); Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814); G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831); F.W.J. Schelling (1775-1854); Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
    • Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832); James Mill (1773-1836); and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

B. Africa -- The Ethiopian Enlightenment

    • 'Abba Mika'el (16th century), The Book of the Philosophers
    • Zera Yacob (1599-1692), The Treatise of Zera Yacob
    • Walda Heywat (1630?- ? ), The Treatise of Walda Heywat

C. India

    • 16th-18th centuries AD: Continued but limited development of Indian philosophy (especially Vedanta) -- India conquered and controlled by the Muslims (Mughal Empire, c. 1556-1707) and later by the British (18th-20th centuries)
    • Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833) and the beginning of the "Hindu Renaissance"

D. The Far East

    • China
      • Continued development of Neo-Confucianism: Wang Fu-chih (1619-1692); Yen Yuan (1635-1704 Ad); Li Kung (1659-1735); Tai Chen (1723-1777)
    • Japan
      • Neo-Confucianism: Ito Jinsai (1627-1705); Ogyu Sorai (1666-1728); Muro Kyuso (1658-1734)
      • Bushido ("the Way of the Samurai"): Yamaga Soko (1622-1685) [Neo-Confucian and Zen synthesis]
      • Scientific Empiricism: Seki Kowa (1642-1708); Tominaga Nakamoto (1715-1746); Miura Baien (1723-1789); Kaiho Seiryo (1755-1817)

IV. Developments in philosophy from c. 1850 to the present

 

A. Europe and America

    • Pragmatism: Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); William James (1842-1910); John Dewey (1859-1952); George Herbert Mead (1863-1931); C.I. Lewis (1883-1964); etc.
    • Positivism, "Logical Positivism," and Scientific Empiricism: Auguste Comte (1789-1857) [founder of "Positivism"]; Ernst Mach (1836-1916); Moritz Schlick (1882-1936); Otto Neurath (1882-1945); Philipp Frank (1884-1966); Hans Reichenbach (1891-1953); Rudolph Carnap (1891-1970); Karl Popper (1902-1994); Ernest Nagel (1901-1985); Herbert Feigl (1902-____); Kurt Godel (1906-1978); Carl Hempel (1905-____); A.J. Ayer (1910-1990); W.V.O. Quine (1908-____); etc.
    • Analytic Philosophy: G.E. Moore (1873-1958); Bertrand Russell (1872-1970); Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951); John Austin (1911-1960); Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976); Nelson Goodman (1906-____); Donald Davidson (1917-____); Peter Strawson (1919-____); John Rawls (1921-____); Thomas Kuhn (1922-____); Michael Dummett (1925-____); John Searle (1932-____); Hilary Putnam ( ? -____); Robert Nozick ( ? -____); Saul Kripke (1941-____); etc.
    • Marxism: Karl Marx (1818-1883); Friedrich Engels (1820- 1895); Karl Kautsky (1854-1938); George Plekhanov (1856-1918); Antonio Gramschi (1891-1937); Karl Korsch (1886-1961); Georg Lukacs (1885-1971); Herbert Marcuse (1898-1981); Theodore Adorno (1903-1969); Jurgen Habermas (1929-____); etc.
    • Existentialism: Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855); Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900); Miguel De Unamuno (1864-1936); Karl Jaspers (1893-1968); Martin Buber (1878-1969); Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973); Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980); Simone De Beauvoir (1908-1986); etc.
    • Phenomenology: Edmund Husserl (1859-1938); Martin Heidegger (1889-1976); Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1907-1961); Hans Georg Gadamer (1900-____); Paul Ricoeur (1913-____); etc.
    • Structuralism and Post-Structuralism (including "Deconstructionism"): Friedrich de Saussure [linguist] (1857-1913); Roman Jakobson [linguist] (1896-1982); Claude Levi-Strauss [anthropologist] (1908- ? ); Michel Foucault (1926-1984); Jacques Lacan [psychoanalyst] (1901-1980); Roland Barthes [literary critic] (1915-1980); Louis Althusser [also a Marxist] (1918-____); Jacques Derrida (1930-____); Noam Chomsky [linguist] (1928- ? ); etc.
    • Other major 20th century philosophers [difficult to categorize]: F.H. Bradley (1846-1924); Josiah Royce (1855-1916); Henri Bergson (1859-1941); Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947); Morris Raphael Cohen (1880-1947); George Santayana (1863-1952); Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945); Jacques Maritain (1882- 1973); R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943); Benedetto Croce (1866-1952); Jose Ortega y Gasset (1833-1955); Suzanne K. Langer (1895-1985); Hannah Arendt (1906-1975); Michael Polanyi (1891- ? ); Mortimer Adler (1902-____); Ayn Rand (1905-1982); etc.
    • Major figures in the development of modern logic: Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871); George Boole (1815-1864); William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882); [C.S. Peirce (again)]; Friedrich William Schroder (1841-1902); Georg Cantor (1845-1918); Gottlob Frege (1845-1925); Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932); [B. Russell and A.N. Whitehead (again)]; David Hilbert (1862-1943); [L. Wittgenstein (again)]; Frank P. Ramsey (1903-1930); [Rudolph Carnap (again)]; Jan Ɓukasiewicz (1878-1956); [Kurt Godel (again)]; Alonzo Church (1903-1995); Alfred Tarski (1901-1983); [W.V.O. Quine (again)]; G.H. von Wright (1916-____); etc.

B. Latin America

    • Positivism and philosophical naturalism: Gabino Barreda (1820-1881) [Mexico]; Enrique Jose Varona (1849-1933) [Cuba]; Jose Ingenieros (1877-1925) [Argentina]; Carlos Vas Verreira (1871-1958) [Uruguay]; Luis Villoro (1922-____) [Mexico]
    • Vitalism, Idealism, Phenomenology, and Existentialism: Alejandro Korn (1860-1936) [Argentina]; Raimundo de Farias Brito (1862-1917) [Brazil]; Alejandro Deustua (1849-1945) [Peru]; Enrique Molina (1871-1962) [Chile]; Antonio Caso (1883-1946) [Mexico]; Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959) [Mexico]; Francisco Romero (1891-1962) [Argentina]; Samuel Ramos (1897- ? ) [Mexico]; Leopoldo Zea (1912-____) [Mexico]; Juan Llambias de Asevedo ( ? -____) [Uruguay]
    • Marxism: Carlos Astrada ( ? -____) [Argentina]; Francisco Miro Quesada (1918-____) [Peru]; Arturo Andres Roig (1922-____) [Argentina]; Vicente Lombardo Toledano ( ? -____) [Mexico]; Emilio Frugoni ( ? -____) [Uruguay]; Pedro Ceruti Crosa ( ? -____) [Uruguay]; Horacio Cerutti-Guldberg (1950-____) [Argentina]
    • Neo-Thomism and Roman Catholic philosophy: Octavio Nicolas Derisi ( ? -____) [Argentina]; Oswaldo Robles (1904-____) [Mexico]; Antonio Castro ( ? -____) [Uruguay]
    • Others: Francisco Larroyo (1908-____) [Mexico, Neo-Kantianism]; Miguel Reale (1920-____) [Brazil, philosophy of law]; Fernando Salmeron (1925-____) [Mexico, Analytic Philosophy]

C. Africa

    • Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) [Martinique & Algeria]; Kwame Gyekye ( ? - ? ) [an Akan of Ghana]; Kwasi Wiredu ( ? - ? ) [an African]

D. India: The Hindu Renaissance continues

    • The Brahmo Samaj (founded by Ram Mohun Roy): Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905); Keshub Chunder Sen (1838-1884)
    • The Prarthana Samaj: Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842-1901)
    • The Arya Samaj: Dayananda Saraswati (1824-1883); Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
    • The Ramakrishna movement: Sri Ramakrishna (1834-1886); Vivekananda (Narenda Nath Datta) (1863-1902)
    • Major 20th century Indian philosophers: Mohandas ("Mahatma") Gandhi (1869-1948); Sri Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950); Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975)

E. The Far East

    • China
      • Neo-Confucianism: K'ang Yu-wei (1858-1927); T'an Ssu-t'ung (1865-1898); Chang Tung-sun (1886-1962); Hsiung Shih-li (1885-1968); Fung Yu-lan (1895-1975)
      • Marxism: Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976)
    • Japan
      • An attempted East-West synthesis: Kitaro Nishida (1870-1945)
      • Zen Buddhism: D.T. Suzuki (1870-1966)